- עָרַף(b. h.) 1) to divide, cut. Sifré Deut. 306 (ref. to יערף, Deut. 32:2) אין יַעֲרֹף … פרוט … אלא עֲרוֹף ליוכ׳ yaʿărof is a Phoenician (mercantile) term, e. g. one does not say to ones neighbor, pʾroṭ (break into small change) this Selʿa for me, but ʿărof for me Denom. עוֹרֶף. 2) (cmp. קָטַף a. קְטָף) to drop, distill. Taan.7a (ref. to Deut. l. c.) אםת״ח … ואם לאו עוֹרְפֵיהוּ כמטר if a scholar is worthy, he is like dew; if unworthy, drop him like rain; Yalk. Deut. 942 עָרְפֵהוּ. 3) (denom. of עוֹרֶף) to break the neck of; esp. to break the neck of a heifer to atone for a murder the author of which is unknown (Deut. 21:1–9); to perform the ceremony of atonement. Sot.IX, 2 לא היו עוֹרְפִין they did not perform the ceremony. Ib. 45b; a. fr.Ib. IX, 5 ועורפין אותה בקופיץוכ׳ and (if the ground is not hard and rough) they cut her head from behind with a hatchet.Part. pass. עָרוּף; f. עֲרוּפָה.עגלה ע׳, v. עֶגְלָה. 4) (cmp. אָחַר) (of copulations of animals) to cover (from behind). Ib. 42b (play on עָרְפָּה) שהכל עורפיןוכ׳ all covered her from behind. Nif. נֶעֱרַף, Nithpa. נִתְעָרֵף to have the neck broken. Ib. IX, 7 (47a) נמצא … עד שלא נֶעֶרְפָּהוכ׳ (Y. ed. עד שלא תֵיעָרֵף) if the murderer was discovered before the heifer was put to death; משנִתְעָרְפָה העגלה Mish. (Y. a. Bab. ed. משנערפה) after the ceremony had taken place. Ib. 46a יבוא דבר ויֵעָרֵףוכ׳ … let there be brought a thing which has not yet produced fruit (a heifer) and be broken in a place which produces no fruit, and atone for the murder of him who was prevented from producing fruit (good deeds on earth). Ex. R. s. 42, end (play on קשה ערף, Ex. 32:9) ראויים הם להֵעָרֵף they deserve to have their necks broken; a. e.
Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature. Jastrow, Marcus. 1903.